What Are The Types Of Evaluations In Instructional Design

Evaluation is the process of examining a program or process to determine what’s working, what’s not, and why. It determines the value of learning and training programs and acts as blueprints for judgment and improvement. (Rossett, Sheldon, 2001)

Evaluations are normally divided into two categories: Formative and Summative.

2. Formative Evaluation 

A formative evaluation (sometimes referred to as internal) is a method for judging the worth of a program while the program activities are forming (in progress). They can be conducted during any phase of the ADDIE process. This part of the evaluation focuses on the process. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators

Thus, formative evaluations are basically done on the fly. They permit the designers, learners, instructors, and managers to monitor how well the instructional goals and objectives are being met. Its main purpose is to catch deficiencies ASAP so that the proper learning interventions can take place that allows the learners to master the required skills and knowledge.

Formative evaluation is also useful in analyzing learning materials, student learning and achievements, and teacher effectiveness . . . Formative evaluation is primarily a building process which accumulates a series of components of new materials, skills, and problems into an ultimate meaningful whole. – Wally Guyot (1978)

In addition, prototyping is used in formative evaluations to test a particular design aspect by using one or more iterations.

1.  Summative  Evaluation

A summative evaluation (sometimes referred to as external) is a method of judging the worth of a program at the end of the program activities (summation). The focus is on the outcome. Educational Evaluations in US visit here

All assessments can be summative (i.e., have the potential to serve a summative function), but only some have the additional capability of serving formative functions. – Scriven (1967)

The various instruments used to collect the data are questionnaires, surveys, interviews, observations, and testing. The model or methodology used to gather the data should be a specified step-by-step procedure. It should be carefully designed and executed to ensure the data is accurate and valid.

Questionnaires are the least expensive procedure for external evaluations and can be used to collect large samples of graduate information. The questionnaires should be trialed (tested) before using to ensure the recipients understand their operation the way the designer intended. When designing questionnaires, keep in mind the most important feature is the guidance given for its completion. All instructions should be clearly stated . . . let nothing be taken for granted.